Kidney Stones

Before we begin our discussion on Kidney Stones, we need to know that not all kidney stones are made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include:

·       Calcium: Calcium stones are the most common. They can be made of calcium oxalate (most common), phosphate, or maleate. Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, and spinach.

·         Uric Acid: This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They can occur in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy. This type of stone develops when urine is too acidic. A diet rich in purines can increase urine’s acidic level. Purine is a colorless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish, and meats.

·         Struvite: This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections. These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. These stones are caused by a kidney infection. Treating an underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.

·         Cystine: Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. With this type of stone, cystine — an acid that occurs naturally in the body — leaks from the kidneys into the urine.

The greatest risk for kidney stones is making less than one liter of urine per day. This is why kidney stones are common in premature infants who have kidney problems. 
Kidney stones are most likely to occur between the ages of 20 and 40. Different factors can increase your risk of developing a stone. Sex also plays a role, with more men than women developing kidney stones. A history of kidney stones can increase your risk, as does a family history of kidney stones.
Other risk factors include: 
  • dehydration
  • obesity
  • high-protein, salt, or glucose diet
  • hyperparathyroid condition
  • gastric bypass surgery
  • inflammatory bowel diseases that increase calcium absorption
  • taking medications such as diuretics, anti-seizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids
Kidney stones are known to cause severe pain. Symptoms of kidney stones may not occur until the stone begins to move down the ureters. This severe pain is called renal colic. You may have pain on one side of your back or abdomen. In men, pain may radiate to the groin area. The pain of renal colic comes and goes, but can be intense. People with renal colic tend to be restless.
Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:
  • blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine)
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • discolored or foul-smelling urine
  • chills
  • fever
  • frequent need to urinate
  • urinating small amounts of urine
In the case of a small kidney stone, you may not have any pain or symptoms as the stone passes through your urinary tract.
Stones don’t always stay in the kidney. Sometimes, they pass from the kidney into the ureters. Ureters are small and delicate, and the stones may be too large to pass smoothly down the ureter to the bladder. Passage of stones down the ureter can cause spasms and irritation of the ureters as they pass, which causes blood to appear in the urine.

Sometimes stones block the flow of urine. This is called a urinary obstruction. Urinary obstructions can lead to kidney infection (pyelonephritis) and kidney damage.

The Truth About Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. As one can sense the severity of the disease, its damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems. Specific symptoms can also include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination. Multiple Sclerosis takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms). Between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely. However, permanent neurological problems often remain, especially as the disease advances.
While the cause is not clear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. Proposed causes for this includes the genetics and environmental factors such as being triggered by a viral infection. MS is usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests.
There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatments attempt to improve function after an attack and prevent new attacks. Medications used to treat MS, while modestly effective, can have side effects and be poorly tolerated. Physical therapy can help with people's ability to function. Many people pursue alternative treatments, despite a lack of evidence. The long-term outcome is difficult to predict, with good outcomes more often seen in women, those who develop the disease early in life, those with a relapsing course, and those who initially experienced few attacks. Life expectancy is on average 5 to 10 years lower than that of an unaffected population.

Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. In 2013, about 2.3 million people were affected globally with rates varying widely in different regions and among different populations. That year about 20,000 people died from MS, up from 12,000 in 1990. The disease usually begins between the ages of 20 and 50 and is twice as common in women as in men. MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the numerous scars (sclerae—better known as plaques or lesions) that develop on the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. A number of new treatments and diagnostic methods are under development.

With such complex aspects involved in this disease, one shouldn’t take a risk, and make it a point to get the best treatments from the most reputed hospitals. Max Hospitals have the most efficient team to help you in your treatment.

A Few Facts About Hernia That You Were Not Aware Of

Hernia, whether by birth or acquired, occurs in the weaker areas of the body through a weak area or a natural orifice through which it does not pass ordinarily. Hernia’s can be extremely painful to mildly painful depending on the individual, and a swelling or a bulge can be noticed on the patient’s body when they either strain or stand.
The common causes of Hernia includes straining while defecating as in chronic constipation, excessive coughing, indulging in over strenuous exercises, Smoking caused by coughing and deficiency of collagen tissue which causes weakness of abdominal wall.
As already mentioned, hernia causes pain and discomfort & can cause dangerous complication such as intestinal obstruction, strangulation (hampering of blood supply) and gangrene (tissue death) which are life threatening conditions. It never gets cured itself.
In order to heal hernia, a surgery may or may not be required. Hernia operation is essentially done in cases in order to replace the protruded organ back to the abdominal cavity, or repair the weak area of abdominal wall through which protrusion occurs.
The hernia operation can be performed by either of the two following techniques:

1.       Open Tension-free Hernia Repair: A prosthesis such as polypropylene mesh is introduced from outside to cover the defect. Open operation may be done under local anesthesia.

2.       Laparoscopic Hernia Repair: A prosthesis such as polypropylene mesh is use to cover the defect through abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic hernia repair is under general anesthesia. Nowadays local anesthesia used is long acting, so the effect lasts for 4 to 6 hours. The patient walks out of operation theatre and is soon discharged.

Usually hernia is a reducible bulge and goes back to the abdomen on lying or on manipulation. Hernia can lead to the following complications:

·         Irreducibility - Hernia cannot be pushed back into the abdomen.
Obstruction - Intestine in hernia is blocked.
Incarceration - Hernia is painful and not reducible.
Strangulation - Pain, vomiting and inability to pass flatus and stool develops. Blood supply of the intestine is cut off. The intestine loop dies. It is dangerous and life threatening condition.

So do not risk your life because of this disease and get yourself treated as soon as you can. 

Treat Your Breast Cancer at the Best Cancer Care Hospital in the Country

Cancer, being one of the biggest evils of the 21st century, has led to a lot of commotion around the globe. Despite of all the progress that has been made in the field of science and medicine, nothing has been successful enough in order to find a sure shot cure for this ailment. As we know, there are different types of cancers that afflict the human body. Lung cancer and throat cancer commonly occur in cases of people who indulge in excessive smoking. Another commonly occurring cancer, especially in the case of women has to be the breast cancer. It is a type of cancer that occurs in the breast tissue of the human body. In case if you have been observing the occurrence of a lump in the breasts, a change in the breast shape, fluids coming out of the nipple, or a red scaly patch on the skin, then these could be the signs of an occurring cancer in your breast tissue.
Perhaps the best possibility of fighting breast cancer is by the early detection of the same. Despite of the fact that Breast cancer is the one of the most researched cancer across the world and new advancements for the treatment are coming up frequently, proper breast cancer care is rarely available in India. However, some of the best doctors in India are available if you choose to get your treatment by Max Healthcare. It is possible to detect breast cancer using MRI mammograms and X Ray Mammograms to detect breast lumps at an early stage, and Breast Biopsy for not only detecting type of tumor but also receptor status. All of these facilities and technologies are available at very few Hospitals in India. Max Healthcare being one of them.
In order to ensure if you have any complications in your breasts, it is best to see a doctor. As in its initial stage, breast cancer is hard to detect. This is why doctors suggest regular breast examination. Breast cancer symptoms may include:
  • Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard and has uneven edges
  • Any change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast
  • Fluid coming out of the nipple
  • Bone pain
  • Breast pain or discomfort
  • Skin ulcers
  • Swelling of one arm
  • Weight loss

If you have observed one or more of these symptoms, then rush to your nearest Max healthcare Hospital today.

Leukemia - The lethal blood cancer

What is Leukemia?
An abnormal growth in the number of cells, specifically, white blood cells (WBCs) are called as Leukemia. The WBCs force out other red blood cells and platelets. The increased white blood cells do not function well and are immature. Leukemia in children is more common than in adults. Every day, there are hundreds of billion cells that are produced in the body, most of which are red blood cells. In people affected with Leukemia, the production of white blood cells is more than required. Many of them do not mature and are unable to fight infection.
Leukemia causes are unknown. However, there are a few abnormal conditions that have been related to it. Mostly, people with acute lymphocytic leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia tend to have Philadelphia chromosome in their bone marrow and white blood cells. In other types of leukemia, the abnormality is an acquired one, neither is it inherited nor passed on to the offspring. The other genetic disorders related to this are Bloom Syndrome, Down Syndrome, Immune Deficiency Disorders and others. There are environmental factors which may also lead to this such as persistent exposure to radiation, exposure to several chemicals and non-ionizing radiation. Family history may also be one of the causes.
There are mainly four types of leukemia:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML): This occurs when cells have not matured and the bone marrow starts to make blasts which usually grow into white blood cells. The bone marrow may also create abnormal platelets and red blood cells. AML has eight different subtypes which are based on the particular cell that leukemia began from.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): The birth of these cells begins from the bone marrow and spreads to the blood, thereafter. The disease spreads to other parts of the body eventually over a period of time. CML is specifically associated with the Philadelphia chromosome. It can also spread to any organ in the body.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL): This type of blood cancer progresses fast and replaces the cells that produce functional lymphocytes. This is associated with B lymphatic cells in comparison to T cells. The dividing, growing, and spreading of leukemia cells may result in further symptoms.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): A slow-growing type of cancer which occurs in the bone marrow than to the blood and can further spread to the spleen and the liver. However, this may take many years to develop before it becomes serious.
Leukemia early symptoms include poor appetite, bruising, bleeding, stomach ache, trouble in  breathing, frequent infections, swelling, bone and joint pain, anaemia, and others. The symptoms also vary depending upon the age as well as how much of the cancer has grown. In adults, it may also be night sweats, frequent fevers, bone pain, weight loss, swollen gland in the neck, groin or underarm and feeling tired unknowingly.
Leukemia treatment aims at destroying the infected cells and enable the normal cells to create in the bone marrow. All the decisions related to its treatment are based on the stage, the kind of leukemia, the age and the health of the patient. Max Healthcare, Apollo, Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital and many other hospitals in India provide treatment for Leukemia.

Liposuction- The Easy way to lose Fats

In the quest of making a lasting impression on others, everyone tries to look their best. It has become common practice not just for women, but for men as well to spend a considerable amount of money on the latest fashionable clothes and in getting services from spas and salons as well. Irrespective of how much a person spends on buying the most exclusive of brands, deep down inside they all know that nothing will work their way unless they get a fit physique to be able to flaunt those clothes. And whether it is someone who is thin as a stick, or suffering from their overweight disorder, it is extremely difficult for them all to be able to get to their optimum fitness levels.
In pursuit of getting in the perfect shape, people try out a number of different things. From fad diets that stand at a risk of cutting down significantly on the necessary daily nutrition requirements of an individual, to potentially back breaking gym regimens, people have tried it all. As the majority of fats are stored deep inside, much after an individual’s skin layers, it is not possible for most procedures to be able to penetrate to that extent. Even if they do, it takes thousands of hours to be able to work. With very limited patience levels, not many are able to stick to such routines.
In such a scenario, Liposuction stands out as one of the best ways of reducing body fat. The doctors mark the part of the body from where fats need to be removed. A local anesthesia needs to be given in order to reduce the pain that the patient is likely to experience. A canula is then inserted into the skin, which sucks out the fat and other liquids from the layer beneath the skin. The liposuction side effects are reduced by replacing the lost fluids using an intravenous procedure.

The liposuction cost in India is quite nominal when compared to other countries. In addition, there are specialist hospitals doing liposuction, which make it a win win situation for the patients. Especially, the liposuction treatment by Max healthcare has received recognition from doctors over the world.

Neurological disorders,signs and symptoms

Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinate body activities. It has two major divisions:
·         Central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord
·         Peripheral nervous system: all other neural elements, such as eyes, ears, skin and other “sensory receptors”
A doctor who specializes in neurology is called a neurologist. The neurologist treats disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord and nerves, such as:
·         Cerebrovascular disease, such as stroke
·         Headache disorder
·         Infection of the brain and peripheral nervous system
·         Spinal cord disorder
·         Speech and language disorders etc.
Neurologist do not perform surgery. If one of their patients require surgery, they refer them to neurosurgeon.

Signs of Neurological Disorders.

The signs of neurology disorders can vary significantly, depending upon the type of disorder as well as specific area of the body that is affected. In some instances, you might experience emotional symptoms while in other cases physical symptoms may be the result.

Physical Symptoms

Physical symptoms of neurological problems may include the following:
·         Partial or complete paralysis
·         Muscle weakness
·         Partial or complete loss of sensation
·         Seizures
·         Difficulty reading and writing
·         Poor cognitive abilities
·         Unexplained pain
·         Decreased alertness
·         Spinal cord disorders, including inflammatory and autoimmune disorders
·         Headaches, such as cluster headaches and migraines
People who are having problems with their senses, such as touch, vision or smell, may also need to see a neurologist. Problems with senses are sometimes caused by nervous system disorders.

During your appointment with a neurologist, they will likely perform a physical exam and a neurological exam. A neurological exam will test muscle strength, reflexes, and coordination. Since different disorders can have similar symptoms, your neurologist may need more testing to make a diagnosis. Neurologist may recommend a variety of procedures to help diagnose or treat a condition.

These procedures may include:
1.      Lumbar puncture
2.      Tensilon test
3.      EEG
Your neurologist may help you manage your symptoms and neurological disorder alone, or with your primary care physician and other specialists.

Max Healthcare Hospitals provides with team of expert neurologists who offer the best treatment in caring environment. The group of doctors insures proper care. Although they may not perform the test, they may order it, review it, and interpret the results. 
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